Sodium chloride

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  Sodium chloride   
Names: sodium chloride
salt
table salt
edible salt
rock salt
regular salt
common salt
sea salt

Formula: NaCl
SMILES: [Cl-].[Na+]
Molar mass: 58.443 g/mol
Density: 2.165 g/cm3
Crystal system: cubic (anhydrous)
a=5.6404 Å
5.6404 Å
0.5640 nm
, b=5.6404 Å
5.6404 Å
0.5640 nm
, c=5.6404 Å
5.6404 Å
0.5640 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

monoclinic (dihydrate)
α=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

Shapes:
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Cube.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Tetragonal_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Tetragonal_flat_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Tetragonal_pedion.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Octahedron.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Tetragonal_pyramid.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Rhombic_pedion.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Beveled_rhombic_prism.json

Color: colorless
white
grey
Melting point: 800.7 °C
1,073.85 K
1,473.26 °F
1,932.93 °R

Boiling point: 1465 °C
1,738.15 K
2,669 °F
3,128.67 °R

Decomposition point: 0.15 °C
273.3 K
32.27 °F
491.94 °R
(dihydrate)
Refractive index: 1.5442
Magnetic properties: diamagnetic
χ=-3.03 · 10-5cm³/mol
Stability: stable
Hardness: strong
(2.5 on Moh`s scale)
Toxicity: non-toxic
LD50=3000mg/kg

Description

Inorganic compound, salt of alkaline metal sodium and inorganic hydrochloric acid. Doesn`t form water hydrates.

Minerals

Occurs in nature as halite and hydrohalite minerals.

Where to buy

In grocery store (as "table salt", mixture with small amount of potassium and magnesium chlorides).

Precursors

Reaction between sodium hydroxide, hydrocarbonate or carbonate and hydrochloric acid

Chemical equation:

HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H2O
HCl + NaHCO3 = NaCl + H2O + CO2
2HCl + Na2CO3 = 2NaCl + H2O + CO2

For preparation of 100.00g of sodium chloride а 68.44g of hydroxide or 143.74g of hydrocarbonate or 90.68g of carbonate and 164.18g of 38% hydrochloric acid is required.
Add acid to the flask, then add small parts of sodium compound with stirring until it will totally dissolve or, if you use carbonate, until carbon dioxide emission will stop. After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Influence of temperature

Increase solution temperature to 40° or more leads to growing only polycrystals or crust on the walls of vessel. Below this temperature in most cases a "hopper" or "skeletal" growth begins - the growth of large single crystals begins on the faces of other single crystal, forming a something like a frame or "skeleton".
Crystals of dihydrate begin to form at negative solution temperatures

Influence of impurities

The addition of significant amounts of other metal chlorides positively affects at crystal size and shape. For example, the additition of iron(II) chloride] leads to growing large crystals with slight yellow-brown impregnations inside. Similarly, the addition of copper(II) chloride leads to forming large green color crystals. An admixture of more than 40% of potassium chloride leads to growing large colorless single crystals.
Also, addition of dyes or some organic compounds influenses crystal shape. For example, addition or urea leads to changing crystal shape to cuboctahedron, octahedron or their derivatives, often distorted.
Some solvents have the same effect. Growing crystal from a mixture of water and ethanol leads to forming pyramids, while growing from ammonia solution changes shape to a snowflake-like one.

Storage conditions

Store in its original form or under several layers of varnish at average humidity and room temperature. Do not store in matchboxes or cotton wool and do not heat.

Solubility

Temperatureгр/100,00 гр waterгр/100,00 гр ethanolгр/100,00 гр ethanol 40%гр/100,00 гр ethanol 50%гр/100,00 гр ethanol 75%гр/100,00 гр methanolгр/100,00 гр glycerolгр/100,00 гр DMSOгр/100,00 гр ethyl acetateгр/100,00 гр ethylene glycolгр/100,00 гр hydrochloric acidгр/100,00 гр acetic acidгр/100,00 гр propanolгр/100,00 гр isopropanolгр/100,00 гр isobutanolгр/100,00 гр 1-butanolгр/100,00 гр 2-butanolгр/100,00 гр 1-pentanolгр/100,00 гр 1-hexanolгр/100,00 гр ammoniaгр/100,00 гр hydrazineгр/100,00 гр hydroxylamineгр/100,00 гр dimethylformamideгр/100,00 гр N-methylformamideгр/100,00 гр formamideгр/100,00 гр acetonitrileгр/100,00 гр isoamyl alcoholгр/100,00 гр benzyl alcohol
0°C
273.15 K
32 °F
491.67 °R
35.7
35.7 g/100g
26.308 %
46.4
46.4 g/100g
31.694 %
12.9
12.9 g/100g
11.426 %
10°C
283.15 K
50 °F
509.67 °R
~35.8
35.8 g/100g
26.362 %
15°C
288.15 K
59 °F
518.67 °R
~35.9
35.9 g/100g
26.416 %
13.25
13.25 g/100g
11.7 %
9.77
9.77 g/100g
8.9 %
0.661
0.661 g/100g
0.657 %
20°C
293.15 K
68 °F
527.67 °R
35.9
35.9 g/100g
26.416 %
0.7
0.7 g/100g
0.695 %
1.43
1.43 g/100g
1.41 %
0.0005
5.0e-4 g/100g
4.999975e-4 %
0.005
0.005 g/100g
0.005 %
0.002
0.002 g/100g
0.002 %
0.001
0.001 g/100g
9.9999e-4 %
8
8 g/100g
7.407 %
14.7
14.7 g/100g
12.816 %
0.00015
1.5e-4 g/100g
1.499998e-4 %
0.0016
0.0016 g/100g
0.0016 %
0.017
0.017 g/100g
0.017 %
25°C
298.15 K
77 °F
536.67 °R
36.02
36.02 g/100g
26.481 %
0.06
0.06 g/100g
0.06 %
~0.71
0.71 g/100g
0.705 %
1.39
1.39 g/100g
1.371 %
8.2
8.2 g/100g
7.579 %
0.5
0.5 g/100g
0.498 %
0.24
0.24 g/100g
0.239 %
7.15
7.15 g/100g
6.673 %
0.012
0.012 g/100g
0.012 %
0.0027
0.0027 g/100g
0.0027 %
0.00047
4.7e-4 g/100g
4.699978e-4 %
0.04
0.04 g/100g
0.04 %
3.2
3.2 g/100g
3.101 %
9.4
9.4 g/100g
8.592 %
0.00025
2.5e-4 g/100g
2.499994e-4 %
30°C
303.15 K
86 °F
545.67 °R
36.15
36.15 g/100g
26.552 %
~0.06
0.06 g/100g
0.06 %
~0.72
0.72 g/100g
0.715 %
1.38
1.38 g/100g
1.361 %
0.11
0.11 g/100g
0.11 %
0.074
0.074 g/100g
0.0739 %
40°C
313.15 K
104 °F
563.67 °R
36.43
36.43 g/100g
26.702 %
~0.07
0.07 g/100g
0.07 %
0.736
0.736 g/100g
0.731 %
1.33
1.33 g/100g
1.313 %
50°C
323.15 K
122 °F
581.67 °R
36.78
36.78 g/100g
26.89 %
0.07
0.07 g/100g
0.07 %
~0.84
0.84 g/100g
0.833 %
1.25
1.25 g/100g
1.235 %
60°C
333.15 K
140 °F
599.67 °R
37.19
37.19 g/100g
27.108 %
~0.07
0.07 g/100g
0.07 %
~0.94
0.94 g/100g
0.931 %
1.24
1.24 g/100g
1.225 %
70°C
343.15 K
158 °F
617.67 °R
37.62
37.62 g/100g
27.336 %
~0.08
0.08 g/100g
0.0799 %
1.033
1.033 g/100g
1.022 %
80°C
353.15 K
176 °F
635.67 °R
38.13
38.13 g/100g
27.604 %
0.08
0.08 g/100g
0.0799 %
90°C
363.15 K
194 °F
653.67 °R
~38.8
38.8 g/100g
27.954 %
0.162
0.162 g/100g
0.162 %
100°C
373.15 K
212 °F
671.67 °R
39.4
39.4 g/100g
28.264 %
Insoluble in acetone, diethyl ether, pyridine, methyl acetate and benzonitrile.

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