Sodium nitrate

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  Sodium nitrate   
Names: sodium nitrate
nitrate of soda
chile saltpeter
Peru saltpeter
soda niter
cubic niter

Formula: NaNO3
SMILES: [N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[Na+]
Molar mass: 84.994 g/mol
Density: 2.257 g/cm3
Crystal system: hexagonal
a=5.0665 Å
5.0665 Å
0.5067 nm
, b=5.0665 Å
5.0665 Å
0.5067 nm
, c=16.577 Å
16.5770 Å
1.6577 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=120°
120°  

Shapes:
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Oblique_rhombic_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Rhombic_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Octahedron.json

Color: colorless
white
Melting point: 308 °C
581.15 K
586.4 °F
1,046.07 °R

Decomposition point: 380 °C
653.15 K
716 °F
1,175.67 °R

Refractive index: 1.336 (orthorhombic)
1.587 (rhombohedral)
Optical properties: birefringence
Magnetic properties: diamagnetic
χ=-2.56 · 10-5cm³/mol
Stability: stable
Hardness: relatively strong
(2 on Moh`s scale)
Toxicity: non-toxic
LD50=3236mg/kg

Description

Inorganic compound, salt of alkaline metal sodium and inorganic nitric acid. Doesn`t form water hydrates.

Minerals

Occurs in nature as nitratine mineral.

Precursors

Reaction between sodium hydroxide or carbonate and nitric acid

Chemical equation:

NaOH + HNO3 = NaNO3 + H2O
Na2CO3 + 2HNO3 = 2NaNO3 + 2H2O + CO2

For preparation of 100.00g of sodium nitrate а 47.06g of sodium hydroxide or 62.35g of carbonate and 114.06g of 65% acid is required.
Add acid to the flask, then add small parts of sodium compound with stirring until it will totally dissolve or, if you use carbonate, until carbon dioxide emission will stop. After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Reaction between excess of sodium hydroxide or carbonate and ammonium nitrate

Chemical equation:

NH4NO3 + NaOH = NaNO3 + H2O + NH3
2NH4NO3 + Na2CO3 = 2NaNO3 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑ + CO2

For preparation of 100.00g of sodium nitrate а 47.06g of sodium hydroxide or 62.35g of carbonate and 94.17g of ammonium nitrate is required.
Add to the flask saturated solution of sodium compounds and then add small parts of hot nitrate ammonium solution with heating and stirring. Emission of large amount of ammonia will begin.Attention, exuding ammonia irritates eyes and lungs! The synthesis should be carried out only in a fume hood or outdoors!

Reaction between sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate

Chemical equation:

NH4NO3 + NaCl = NaNO3↓ + NH4Cl

For preparation of 100.00g of sodium nitrate а 68.76g of sodium chloride and 94.17g of ammonium nitrate is required.
Add to the flask with hot nitrate ammonium solution a chloride sodium solution with heating and stirring. Cooling this mixture will cause forming a large amount of crystalline precipitation. Filter precipitate and wash it wish small amount of cold water, then filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Reaction between calcium or lead(II) nitrate and sodium hydroxide, carbonate or sulfate

You can use sodium chloride instead of sulfate in reaction with lead salt.
Chemical equation:

Ca(NO3)2 + 2NaOH = Ca(OH)2↓ + 2NaNO3
Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaOH = Pb(OH)2↓ + 2NaNO3
Ca(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 = CaCO3↓ + 2NaNO3
Pb(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 = PbCO3↓ + 2NaNO3
Ca(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 = CaSO4↓ + 2NaNO3
Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 = PbSO4↓ + 2NaNO3
Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl = PbCl2↓ + 2NaNO3

For preparation of 100.00g of sodium nitrate а 47.06g of sodium hydroxide or 62.35g of carbonate or 83.56g of sulfate or 68.76g of chloride and 194.84g of lead(II) nitrate or 138.92g of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate is required.
Add to the flask with calcium or lead nitrate solution small parts of sodium salt solution and stir. The large amount of poorly soluble precipitate will form. Settle it out and discard, then filter the solution carefully.

Notes

Dissolving is endothermic, solution cools much, so use hot water or using heat.

Storage conditions

Store in its original form or under several layers of varnish at average humidity and room temperature. Do not store in matchboxes or cotton wool and do not heat.

Solubility

Temperatureгр/100,00 гр waterгр/100,00 гр ethanolгр/100,00 гр ethanol 50%гр/100,00 гр methanolгр/100,00 гр diethyl etherгр/100,00 гр pyridineгр/100,00 гр nitric acidгр/100,00 гр acetic acidгр/100,00 гр ammoniaгр/100,00 гр hydrazineгр/100,00 гр ethylenediamineгр/100,00 гр hydroxylamineгр/100,00 гр dimethylformamide
0°C
273.15 K
32 °F
491.67 °R
72.7
72.7 g/100g
42.096 %
127
127 g/100g
55.947 %
10°C
283.15 K
50 °F
509.67 °R
79.9
79.9 g/100g
44.414 %
15°C
288.15 K
59 °F
518.67 °R
~83.8
83.8 g/100g
45.593 %
20°C
293.15 K
68 °F
527.67 °R
87.6
87.6 g/100g
46.695 %
0.0196
0.0196 g/100g
0.0196 %
1.5
1.5 g/100g
1.478 %
100
100 g/100g
50 %
13.1
13.1 g/100g
11.583 %
25°C
298.15 K
77 °F
536.67 °R
91.6
91.6 g/100g
47.808 %
0.036
0.036 g/100g
0.036 %
19.4
19.4 g/100g
16.248 %
0.41
0.41 g/100g
0.408 %
0.35
0.35 g/100g
0.349 %
0.173
0.173 g/100g
0.173 %
33.5
33.5 g/100g
25.094 %
15.4
15.4 g/100g
13.345 %
30°C
303.15 K
86 °F
545.67 °R
96.1
96.1 g/100g
49.006 %
0.197
0.197 g/100g
0.197 %
40°C
313.15 K
104 °F
563.67 °R
104.9
104.9 g/100g
51.196 %
0.246
0.246 g/100g
0.245 %
50°C
323.15 K
122 °F
581.67 °R
114.1
114.1 g/100g
53.293 %
~0.41
0.41 g/100g
0.408 %
60°C
333.15 K
140 °F
599.67 °R
124.7
124.7 g/100g
55.496 %
~0.57
0.57 g/100g
0.567 %
70°C
343.15 K
158 °F
617.67 °R
~137
137 g/100g
57.806 %
~0.73
0.73 g/100g
0.725 %
80°C
353.15 K
176 °F
635.67 °R
149
149 g/100g
59.839 %
~0.89
0.89 g/100g
0.882 %
90°C
363.15 K
194 °F
653.67 °R
~163
163 g/100g
61.977 %
~1.06
1.06 g/100g
1.049 %
100°C
373.15 K
212 °F
671.67 °R
176
176 g/100g
63.768 %
1.22
1.22 g/100g
1.205 %
Soluble in ethanol. Slightly soluble in pyridine. Insoluble in acetone.

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