Calcium nitrate

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  Calcium nitrate   
Names: calcium nitrate
lime nitrate
norwegian saltpeter

Formula: Ca(NO3)2 (anhydrous)
Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O (tetrahydrate)
SMILES: [N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[Ca+2]
Molar mass: 164.086 g/mol (anhydrous)
236.146 g/mol (tetrahydrate)
Density: 2.504 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.896 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate)
Crystal system: cubic (anhydrous)
a=7.6 Å
7.6000 Å
0.7600 nm
, b=7.6 Å
7.6000 Å
0.7600 nm
, c=7.6 Å
7.6000 Å
0.7600 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

monoclinic (tetrahydrate)
a=6.2777 Å
6.2777 Å
0.6278 nm
, b=9.1579 Å
9.1579 Å
0.9158 nm
, c=14.4841 Å
14.4841 Å
1.4484 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=98.62°
98°37′12.0″  
, γ=90°
90°  

Shapes:
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Oblique_rhombic_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Truncated_oblique_rhombic_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Trapezoidal_flat_prism.json

Color: colorless
white
Melting point: 561 °C
834.15 K
1,041.8 °F
1,501.47 °R
(anhydrous)
42.7 °C
315.85 K
108.86 °F
568.53 °R
(tetrahydrate)
Boiling point: 132 °C
405.15 K
269.6 °F
729.27 °R
(tetrahydrate)
Magnetic properties: diamagnetic
Stability: stable (tetrahydrate)
highly hygroscopic (anhydrous)
Hardness: relatively strong
(2 on Moh`s scale)
Toxicity:
"moderalety toxic" is not in the list (poisonous, highly toxic, moderately toxic, slightly toxic, non-toxic) of allowed values for the "Compound/Toxicity" property.

LD50=302mg/kg

Description

Inorganic compound, salt of alkaline earth metal calcium and inorganic nitric acid. From water solutions crystallizes as tetrahydrate.

Minerals

Occurs in nature as nitrocalcite mineral.

Where to buy

In fertilizers store (as "Calcium nitrate") and pharmacy (as "heating pad").

Precursors

Reaction between calcium hydroxide or carbonate and nitric acid

Chemical equation:

2HNO3 + Ca(OH)2 = Ca(NO3)2 + 2H2O
2HNO3 + CaCO3 = Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2

For preparation of 100.00g of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate а 31.38g of calcium hydroxide or 42.38g of carbonate and 82.10g of 65% acid is required.
Add acid to the flask, then add small parts of calcium compound with stirring until it will totally dissolve or, if you use carbonate, until carbon dioxide emission will stop. After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Reaction between calcium hydroxide or carbonate and ammonium nitrate

Chemical equation:

2NH4NO3 + Ca(OH)2 = Ca(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NH3
2NH4NO3 + CaCO3 = Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + 2NH3↑ + CO2

For preparation of 100.00g of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate а 31.38g of calcium hydroxide or 42.38g of carbonate and 67.79g of ammonium nitrate is required.
Add to the flask suspended in water calcium compounds and then add small parts of hot nitrate ammonium solution with heating and stirring. Emission of large amount of ammonia will begin.Attention, exuding ammonia irritates eyes and lungs! The synthesis should be carried out only in a fume hood or outdoors!

Notes

Dissolving is endothermic, solution cools much, so use hot water or using heat.
The solution absorbs moisture from the air, so growth is hard enough.

Storage conditions

Store in its original form or under several layers of varnish at average humidity and room temperature. Do not store in matchboxes or cotton wool and do not heat.

Solubility

Temperatureгр/100,00 гр waterгр/100,00 гр ethanolгр/100,00 гр methanolгр/100,00 гр acetoneгр/100,00 гр DMSOгр/100,00 гр pyridineгр/100,00 гр methyl acetateгр/100,00 гр nitric acidгр/100,00 гр acetic acidгр/100,00 гр propanolгр/100,00 гр isopropanolгр/100,00 гр isobutanolгр/100,00 гр ammoniaгр/100,00 гр dimethylformamideгр/100,00 гр amyl alcohol
(anhydrous)(tetrahydrate)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(tetrahydrate)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(tetrahydrate)(anhydrous)
0°C
273.15 K
32 °F
491.67 °R
102.0
102 g/100g
50.495 %
82.8
82.8 g/100g
45.295 %
10°C
283.15 K
50 °F
509.67 °R
~115
115 g/100g
53.488 %
134
134 g/100g
57.265 %
15°C
288.15 K
59 °F
518.67 °R
~121
121 g/100g
54.751 %
~136
136 g/100g
57.627 %
89.2
89.2 g/100g
47.146 %
20°C
293.15 K
68 °F
527.67 °R
121.2
121.2 g/100g
54.792 %
127.3
127.3 g/100g
56.005 %
51.4
51.4 g/100g
33.95 %
~138
138 g/100g
57.983 %
1.68
1.68 g/100g
1.652 %
69.5
69.5 g/100g
41.003 %
25°C
298.15 K
77 °F
536.67 °R
~159
159 g/100g
61.39 %
138.1
138.1 g/100g
58.001 %
~140
140 g/100g
58.333 %
27
27 g/100g
21.26 %
5.75
5.75 g/100g
5.437 %
0.01
0.01 g/100g
0.01 %
57.5
57.5 g/100g
36.508 %
2.67
2.67 g/100g
2.601 %
33.3
33.3 g/100g
24.981 %
20
20 g/100g
16.667 %
6.9
6.9 g/100g
6.455 %
30°C
303.15 K
86 °F
545.67 °R
~196
196 g/100g
66.216 %
154.5
154.5 g/100g
60.707 %
~141
141 g/100g
58.506 %
23.33
23.33 g/100g
18.917 %
40°C
313.15 K
104 °F
563.67 °R
271
271 g/100g
73.046 %
230.0
230 g/100g
69.697 %
62.9
62.9 g/100g
38.613 %
144
144 g/100g
59.016 %
50°C
323.15 K
122 °F
581.67 °R
~313
313 g/100g
75.787 %
~151
151 g/100g
60.159 %
60°C
333.15 K
140 °F
599.67 °R
354
354 g/100g
77.974 %
158
158 g/100g
61.24 %
70°C
343.15 K
158 °F
617.67 °R
356
356 g/100g
78.07 %
80°C
353.15 K
176 °F
635.67 °R
358
358 g/100g
78.166 %
90°C
363.15 K
194 °F
653.67 °R
361
361 g/100g
78.308 %
100°C
373.15 K
212 °F
671.67 °R
363
363 g/100g
78.402 %
Soluble in methylamine. Insoluble in dimethylamine and trimethylamine.

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