Copper(II) nitrate

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  Copper(II) nitrate   
Names: copper(II) nitrate
copper dinitrate
cupric nitrate
Formula: Cu(NO3)2 (anhydrous)
Cu(NO3)2 · 3H2O (trihydrate)
Cu(NO3)2 · 6H2O (hexahydrate)
SMILES: [N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[Cu+2]
Molar mass: 187.554 g/mol (anhydrous)
241.599 g/mol (trihydrate)
295.643 g/mol (hexahydrate)
Density: 2.074 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
2.32 g/cm3 (trihydrate)
3.05 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
Crystal system: triclinic (hexahydrate)
a=5.91 Å
5.9100 Å
0.5910 nm
, b=7.77 Å
7.7700 Å
0.7770 nm
, c=5.43 Å
5.4300 Å
0.5430 nm
α=97.65°
97°39′  
, β=93.88°
93°52′48.0″  
, γ=72.53°
72°31′48.0″  

rhombohedral (trihydrate)
monoclinic (hemipentahydrate)
a=16.4569 Å
16.4569 Å
1.6457 nm
, b=4.9384 Å
4.9384 Å
0.4938 nm
, c=15.9632 Å
15.9632 Å
1.5963 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=93.764°
93°45′50.4″  
, γ=90°
90°  

monoclinic (sesquihydrate)
a=22.2 Å
22.2000 Å
2.2200 nm
, b=4.9 Å
4.9000 Å
0.4900 nm
, c=15.4 Å
15.4000 Å
1.5400 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=48°
48°  
, γ=90°
90°  

orthorhombic (anhydrous)
a=11.2 Å
11.2000 Å
1.1200 nm
, b=5.05 Å
5.0500 Å
0.5050 nm
, c=8.28 Å
8.2800 Å
0.8280 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

Forms:
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Beveled_tetragonal_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Deformed_tetragonal_bipyramid.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Prolongated_tetragonal_pyramidal_prism.json

Color: blue-violet
blue
Melting point: 144.5 °C
417.65 K
292.1 °F
751.77 °R
(trihydrate)
226 °C
499.15 K
438.8 °F
898.47 °R
(anhydrous)
Decomposition point: 256 °C
529.15 K
492.8 °F
952.47 °R
(anhydrous)
Magnetic properties: paramagnetic
χ=0.00157 cm³/mol
Stability: slowly erodes (trihydrate)
hygroscopic (anhydrous)
Hardness: fragile
Toxicity: moderately toxic

Description

Inorganic compound, salt of bivalent transitional metal copper and inorganic nitric acid. From water solutions crystallizes as trihydrate and hexahydrate.

Minerals

Occurs in nature as gerhardtite and rouaite minerals.

Precursors

Reaction between copper(II) oxide, hydroxide or hydroxycarbonate and nitric acid

Chemical equation:

CuO + 2HNO3 = Cu(NO3)2 + H2O
Cu(OH)2 + 2HNO3 = Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O
Cu2CO3(OH)2 + 4HNO3 = 2Cu(NO3)2 + CO2↑ + 3H2O

For preparation of 100.00g of copper(II) nitrate trihydrate а 32.92g of copper(II) oxide or 40.38g of hydroxide or 45.76g of hydroxycarbonate and 80.25g of 65% acid is required.
Add acid to the flask, then add small parts of copper compound with stirring until it will totally dissolve or, if you use carbonate, until carbon dioxide emission will stop. After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Reaction between metal copper and diluted nitric acid

Chemical equation:

Cu + 4HNO3 = 4Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2↑ + 2H2O

For preparation of 100.00g of copper(II) nitrate trihydrate а 6.58g of pure copper and 40.12g of 65% acid is required.
Add cold diluted acid solution to the flask, then add copper pieces, shavings or powder and stir it until gas emission will stop.

Reaction between copper(II) sulfate and calcium or lead(II) nitrate

You can use copper(II) chloride instead of sulfate if you use lead salt..
Chemical equation:

CuSO4 + Ca(NO3)2 = CaSO4↓ + Cu(NO3)2
CuSO4 + Pb(NO3)2 = PbSO4↓ + Cu(NO3)2
CuCl2 + Pb(NO3)2 = PbCl2↓ + Cu(NO3)2

For preparation of 100.00g of copper(II) nitrate trihydrate а 103.35g of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate or 70.56g of copper(II) chloride dihydrate and 137.09g of lead(II) nitrate or 97.74g of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate is required.
Add to the flask with calcium or lead nitrate solution small parts of copper salt solution and stir. The large amount of poorly soluble precipitate will form. Settle it out and discard, then filter the solution carefully.

Reaction between copper(II) hydroxide or hydroxycarbonate and ammonium nitrate

Chemical equation:

Cu(OH)2 + 2NH4NO3 = Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NH3
Cu2CO3(OH)2 + 4NH4NO3 = 2Cu(NO3)2 + 3H2O + 2NH3↑ + CO2

For preparation of 100.00g of copper(II) nitrate trihydrate а 40.38g of copper(II) hydroxide or 45.76g of hydroxycarbonate and 66.26g of ammonium nitrate is required.
Add to the flask suspended in water copper compounds and then add small parts of hot nitrate ammonium solution with heating and stirring. Emission of large amount of ammonia will begin.Attention, exuding ammonia irritates eyes and lungs! The synthesis should be carried out only in a fume hood or outdoors!

Storage conditions

For crystal storing use hermetic vessel with small amount of saturated solution at the bottom or place wadding moistened with such solution. You can use such alternatives as vessel with vaseline or vegetable oil, organic non-hygroscopic solvent (kerosene, benzine or paraffin). Also you can use acrylate polymer or another kinds of solidifying plastic.

Solubility

Temperatureгр/100,00 гр waterгр/100,00 гр dimethylformamide
(anhydrous)(hexahydrate)(anhydrous)
0°C
273.15 K
32 °F
491.67 °R
83.5
83.5 g/100g
45.504 %
137.8
137.8 g/100g
57.948 %
10°C
283.15 K
50 °F
509.67 °R
100
100 g/100g
50 %
~199
199 g/100g
66.555 %
15°C
288.15 K
59 °F
518.67 °R
~112
112 g/100g
52.83 %
~229
229 g/100g
69.605 %
20°C
293.15 K
68 °F
527.67 °R
124.7
124.7 g/100g
55.496 %
~259
259 g/100g
72.145 %
25°C
298.15 K
77 °F
536.67 °R
150.6
150.6 g/100g
60.096 %
~290
290 g/100g
74.359 %
20
20 g/100g
16.667 %
30°C
303.15 K
86 °F
545.67 °R
156.4
156.4 g/100g
60.998 %
~320
320 g/100g
76.19 %
40°C
313.15 K
104 °F
563.67 °R
163.2
163.2 g/100g
62.006 %
381
381 g/100g
79.21 %
50°C
323.15 K
122 °F
581.67 °R
161.7
161.7 g/100g
61.788 %
~452
452 g/100g
81.884 %
60°C
333.15 K
140 °F
599.67 °R
181.7
181.7 g/100g
64.501 %
~523
523 g/100g
83.949 %
70°C
343.15 K
158 °F
617.67 °R
~195
195 g/100g
66.102 %
~595
595 g/100g
85.612 %
80°C
353.15 K
176 °F
635.67 °R
207.7
207.7 g/100g
67.501 %
666
666 g/100g
86.945 %
90°C
363.15 K
194 °F
653.67 °R
222
222 g/100g
68.944 %
~968
968 g/100g
90.637 %
100°C
373.15 K
212 °F
671.67 °R
247.2
247.2 g/100g
71.198 %
1270
1,270 g/100g
92.701 %
Soluble in ethanol, DMSO, ethyl acetate, hydrazine and acetonitrile.

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