Copper(II) sulfate

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  Copper(II) sulfate   
Names: cupric sulfate
copper vitriol
blue vitriol

Formula: CuSO4 (anhydrous)
CuSO4 · 5H2O (pentahydrate)
SMILES: [O-]S(=O)(=O)[O-].[Cu+2]
Molar mass: 159.607 g/mol (anhydrous)
249.681 g/mol (pentahydrate)
Density: 3.6 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.7 g/cm3 (trihydrate)
2.286 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)
Crystal system: orthorhombic (anhydrous)
a=8.409 Å
8.4090 Å
0.8409 nm
, b=6.409 Å
6.4090 Å
0.6409 nm
, c=4.833 Å
4.8330 Å
0.4833 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

monoclinic (trihydrate)
a=5.59 Å
5.5900 Å
0.5590 nm
, b=13.03 Å
13.0300 Å
1.3030 nm
, c=7.34 Å
7.3400 Å
0.7340 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=97.1°
97°5′60.0″  
, γ=90°
90°  

triclinic (pentahydrate)
a=5.986 Å
5.9860 Å
0.5986 nm
, b=6.141 Å
6.1410 Å
0.6141 nm
, c=10.736 Å
10.7360 Å
1.0736 nm
α=77.333°
77°19′58.8″  
, β=82.267°
82°16′1.2″  
, γ=72.567°
72°34′1.2″  

Forms:
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Parallelepiped.json

Template:Pinacoidal prismTemplate:Rhombohedron

Color: bright-blue
blue
Decomposition point: 650 °C
923.15 K
1,202 °F
1,661.67 °R
(anhydrous)
Refractive index: 1.732 (anhydrous)
1.529 (pentahydrate)
Magnetic properties: paramagnetic
χ=0.00133 cm³/mol
Stability: slightly erodes (pentahydrate)
hygroscopic (anhydrous)
Hardness: relatively strong
Toxicity: moderately toxic

Description

Inorganic compound, salt of bivalent transitional metal copper and inorganic sulfuric acid. From water solutions crystallizes as pentahydrate.

Minerals

Occurs in nature as chalcanthite, chalcocyanite, bonattite and boothite minerals.

Where to buy

In fertilizers store (as "blue vitriol").

Precursors

Reaction between copper(II) hydroxycarbonate, hydroxide or oxide copper (II) and sulfuric acid

Chemical equation:

2H2SO4 + Cu2CO3(OH)2 = 2CuSO4 + 3H2O + CO2
H2SO4 + Cu(OH)2 = CuSO4 + 2H2O
H2SO4 + CuO = CuSO4 + H2O

For preparation of 100.00g of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate а 39.07g of hydroxide or 31.86g of oxide and 106.16g of 37% sulfuric acid is required.
Add acid to the flask, then add small parts of copper compound with stirring until it will totally dissolve or, if you use carbonate, until carbon dioxide emission will stop. After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Reaction between pure copper, sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide

Chemical equation:

H2SO4 + Cu + H2O2 = CuSO4 + 2H2O

For preparation of 100.00g of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate а 25.45g of copper, 454.10g of 3% peroxide and 106.16g of 37% sulfuric acid is required.
Add hot acid solution to the flask, then add peroxide and copper pieces, shavings or powder and stir and heat it until gas emission will stop.

Reaction between pure copper and concentrated sulfuric acid

Chemical equation:

2H2SO4 + Cu = CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2

For preparation of 100.00g of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate а 25.45g of copper and 78.56g of concentrated sulfuric acid is required.
Add concentrated acid solution to the flask, then add copper pieces, shavings or powder and stir and heat it until gas emission will stop.

Electrolysis of sulfuric acid solution with copped anode

Chemical equation:

H2SO4 + Cu —electrolysis→ CuSO4 + H2

For preparation of 100.00g of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate а 25.45g of copper and 106.16g of 37% sulfuric acid is required.
Add to the flask sulfuric acid solution, then place there copper electrodes and plug them to 1.5-5 V power supply. After some time crystal growth will begin at cathode.

Reaction between copper(II) chloride, sulfate or nitrate and excess of concentrated sulfuric acid

Chemical equation:

H2SO4 + CuCl2 = CuSO4 + 2HCl↑
H2SO4 + Cu(CH3COO)2 = CuSO4 + 2CH3COOH↑
H2SO4 + Cu(NO3)2 = CuSO4 + 2HNO3

For preparation of 100.00g of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate а 68.28g of copper(II) chloride dihydrate or 79.96g of copper(II) acetate monohydrate or 118.41g of copper(II) nitrate hexahydrate and 39.28g of concentrated sulfuric acid is required.
Add to the flask concentrated sulfuric acid and then add small parts of hot copper compound solution with heating and stirring. Emission of large amount of gas will begin.Attention, exuding gas irritates eyes and lungs! The synthesis should be carried out only in a fume hood or outdoors! After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Influence of temperature

Growing from a hot solution leads to forming polycrystals.

Influence of impurities

The technical compound impurities slightly affect a growth of crystals. Usually these impurities are copper hydroxychloride, which is insoluble and can be removed by solution filtration, or iron salts, which can be removed only by several stages of recrystallization.
Addition of glycerol leads to flat crystals forming.

Influence of pH level

Addition of hydrochloric acid leads to crystals cleavage into plates.

Storage conditions

Store in its original form or under several layers of varnish at average humidity and room temperature. Do not store in matchboxes or cotton wool and do not heat.

Solubility

Temperatureгр/100,00 гр waterгр/100,00 гр ethanolгр/100,00 гр ethanol 40%гр/100,00 гр methanolгр/100,00 гр glycerolгр/100,00 гр ethylene glycolгр/100,00 гр formic acid 95%гр/100,00 гр sulfuric acidгр/100,00 гр dimethylformamide
(anhydrous)(pentahydrate)(pentahydrate)(pentahydrate)(anhydrous)(pentahydrate)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(pentahydrate)(pentahydrate)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)
0°C
273.15 K
32 °F
491.67 °R
14.16
14.16 g/100g
12.404 %
23.1
23.1 g/100g
18.765 %
1.1
1.1 g/100g
1.088 %
10°C
283.15 K
50 °F
509.67 °R
16.82
16.82 g/100g
14.398 %
27.5
27.5 g/100g
21.569 %
15°C
288.15 K
59 °F
518.67 °R
~18.4
18.4 g/100g
15.541 %
~30.1
30.1 g/100g
23.136 %
0.77
0.77 g/100g
0.764 %
30.3
30.3 g/100g
23.254 %
8.2
8.2 g/100g
7.579 %
20°C
293.15 K
68 °F
527.67 °R
20.05
20.05 g/100g
16.701 %
32.6
32.6 g/100g
24.585 %
0.25
0.25 g/100g
0.249 %
1.04
1.04 g/100g
1.029 %
15.6
15.6 g/100g
13.495 %
0.05
0.05 g/100g
0.05 %
25°C
298.15 K
77 °F
536.67 °R
21.95
21.95 g/100g
17.999 %
~35.2
35.2 g/100g
26.036 %
1.42
1.42 g/100g
1.4 %
0.13
0.13 g/100g
0.13 %
1.8
1.8 g/100g
1.768 %
30°C
303.15 K
86 °F
545.67 °R
23.92
23.92 g/100g
19.303 %
37.8
37.8 g/100g
27.431 %
~1.73
1.73 g/100g
1.701 %
0.5
0.5 g/100g
0.498 %
~0.14
0.14 g/100g
0.14 %
40°C
313.15 K
104 °F
563.67 °R
28.54
28.54 g/100g
22.203 %
44.6
44.6 g/100g
30.844 %
~2.36
2.36 g/100g
2.306 %
0.16
0.16 g/100g
0.16 %
50°C
323.15 K
122 °F
581.67 °R
34.05
34.05 g/100g
25.401 %
~53.2
53.2 g/100g
34.726 %
2.99
2.99 g/100g
2.903 %
~0.20
0.2 g/100g
0.2 %
60°C
333.15 K
140 °F
599.67 °R
40.45
40.45 g/100g
28.8 %
61.8
61.8 g/100g
38.195 %
~0.25
0.25 g/100g
0.249 %
70°C
343.15 K
158 °F
617.67 °R
47.93
47.93 g/100g
32.4 %
~72.8
72.8 g/100g
42.13 %
0.29
0.29 g/100g
0.289 %
80°C
353.15 K
176 °F
635.67 °R
56.99
56.99 g/100g
36.302 %
83.8
83.8 g/100g
45.593 %
90°C
363.15 K
194 °F
653.67 °R
67.5
67.5 g/100g
40.299 %
~99.4
99.4 g/100g
49.85 %
100°C
373.15 K
212 °F
671.67 °R
76.99
76.99 g/100g
43.5 %
115
115 g/100g
53.488 %
Insoluble in acetone, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, ammonia, methylamine and benzonitrile.

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