Ammonium sulfate

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  Ammonium sulfate   
Names: sulfate ammonium
diammonium sulfate
actamaster

Formula: (NH4)2SO4
SMILES: [O-]S(=O)(=O)[O-].[NH4+].[NH4+]
Molar mass: 132.139 g/mol
Density: 1.769 g/cm3
Crystal system: orthorhombic (α)
a=7.924 Å
7.9240 Å
0.7924 nm
, b=10.526 Å
10.5260 Å
1.0526 nm
, c=5.953 Å
5.9530 Å
0.5953 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

orthorhombic (β)
a=7.782 Å
7.7820 Å
0.7782 nm
, b=10.636 Å
10.6360 Å
1.0636 nm
, c=5.993 Å
5.9930 Å
0.5993 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

Shapes:
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Prolongated_hexagonal_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Prolongated_tetragonal_pyramidal_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Tetragonal_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Prolongated_rhombic_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Hexagonal_pedion.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Hexagonal_bipyramid.json

Color: colorless
Melting point: 218 °C
491.15 K
424.4 °F
884.07 °R

Decomposition point: 235 °C
508.15 K
455 °F
914.67 °R
(anhydrous)
-93 °C
180.15 K
-135.4 °F
324.27 °R
(α)
Refractive index: 1.521
Magnetic properties: diamagnetic
χ=-6.70 · 10-5cm³/mol
Stability: stable
Hardness: relatively strong
(2 on Moh`s scale)
Toxicity: non-toxic
LD50=2840mg/kg

Description

Inorganic compound, salt of ammonium ion and inorganic sulfuric acid. Doesn`t form water hydrates.

Minerals

Occurs in nature as mascagnite mineral.

Where to buy

In fertilizers store (as "Ammonium sulfate").

Precursors

Reaction between ammonia and sulfuric acid

Chemical equation:

H2SO4 + 2NH4OH = (NH4)2SO4 + 2H2O

For preparation of 100.00g of ammonium sulfate а 212.18g of 25% ammonia and 200.60g of 37% sulfuric acid is required.
Add acid to the flask, then add small parts of ammonium compound with stirring until heating will stop (attention, the solution may boil!) . After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Reaction between ammonium chloride or nitrate and sulfuric acid

Chemical equation:

H2SO4 + 2NH4Cl = (NH4)2SO4 + 2HCl↑
H2SO4 + 2NH4NO3 = (NH4)2SO4 + 2HNO3

For preparation of 100.00g of ammonium sulfate а 80.96g of ammonium chloride or 121.15g of nitrate and 200.60g of 37% sulfuric acid is required.
Add to the flask acid and then add small parts of hot acid solution with heating and stirring. Emission of large amount of gas will begin.Attention, exuding gas irritates eyes and lungs! The synthesis should be carried out only in a fume hood or outdoors! After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Storage conditions

Store in its original form or under several layers of varnish at average humidity and room temperature. Do not store in matchboxes or cotton wool and do not heat.

Solubility

Temperatureгр/100,00 гр waterгр/100,00 гр formic acid 95%
0°C
273.15 K
32 °F
491.67 °R
70.1
70.1 g/100g
41.211 %
10°C
283.15 K
50 °F
509.67 °R
72.7
72.7 g/100g
42.096 %
15°C
288.15 K
59 °F
518.67 °R
~74.1
74.1 g/100g
42.562 %
25.4
25.4 g/100g
20.255 %
20°C
293.15 K
68 °F
527.67 °R
75.4
75.4 g/100g
42.987 %
25°C
298.15 K
77 °F
536.67 °R
76.9
76.9 g/100g
43.471 %
30°C
303.15 K
86 °F
545.67 °R
78.1
78.1 g/100g
43.852 %
40°C
313.15 K
104 °F
563.67 °R
81.2
81.2 g/100g
44.812 %
50°C
323.15 K
122 °F
581.67 °R
84.3
84.3 g/100g
45.741 %
60°C
333.15 K
140 °F
599.67 °R
87.4
87.4 g/100g
46.638 %
70°C
343.15 K
158 °F
617.67 °R
~90.8
90.8 g/100g
47.589 %
80°C
353.15 K
176 °F
635.67 °R
94.1
94.1 g/100g
48.48 %
90°C
363.15 K
194 °F
653.67 °R
~98.1
98.1 g/100g
49.52 %
100°C
373.15 K
212 °F
671.67 °R
102
102 g/100g
50.495 %
Insoluble in ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether.

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