Ammonium nitrate

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  Ammonium nitrate   
Names: ammonium nitrate

Formula: NH4NO3
SMILES: [NH4+].[N+](=O)([O-])[O-]
Molar mass: 80.043 g/mol
Density: 1.725 g/cm3
Crystal system: orthorhombic (α)
a=7.9804 Å
7.9804 Å
0.7980 nm
, b=8.0027 Å
8.0027 Å
0.8003 nm
, c=9.8099 Å
9.8099 Å
0.9810 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

orthorhombic (β)
a=4.9298 Å
4.9298 Å
0.4930 nm
, b=5.7574 Å
5.7574 Å
0.5757 nm
, c=5.4394 Å
5.4394 Å
0.5439 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

orthorhombic (γ)
a=7.1624 Å
7.1624 Å
0.7162 nm
, b=7.7184 Å
7.7184 Å
0.7718 nm
, c=5.8447 Å
5.8447 Å
0.5845 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

tetragonal (δ)
a=5.7193 Å
5.7193 Å
0.5719 nm
, b=5.7193 Å
5.7193 Å
0.5719 nm
, c=4.9326 Å
4.9326 Å
0.4933 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

cubic (ε)
a=4.3655 Å
4.3655 Å
0.4366 nm
, b=4.3655 Å
4.3655 Å
0.4366 nm
, c=4.3655 Å
4.3655 Å
0.4366 nm
α=90°
90°  
, β=90°
90°  
, γ=90°
90°  

Shapes:
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Oblique_rhombic_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Prolongated_rhombic_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Trapezoidal_flat_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Needle.json

Color: colorless
white
Melting point: 169.6 °C
442.75 K
337.28 °F
796.95 °R

Decomposition point: -16.8 °C
256.35 K
1.76 °F
461.43 °R
(α)
32.3 °C
305.45 K
90.14 °F
549.81 °R
(β)
84.2 °C
357.35 K
183.56 °F
643.23 °R
(γ)
125.2 °C
398.35 K
257.36 °F
717.03 °R
(δ)
210 °C
483.15 K
410 °F
869.67 °R
(anhydrous)
Optical properties: birefringence
Magnetic properties: diamagnetic
Stability: slightly hygroscopic
Hardness: fragile
Toxicity: non-toxic
LD50=2085mg/kg

Description

Inorganic compound, salt of ammonium ion and inorganic nitric acid. Doesn`t form water hydrates.

Where to buy

In fertilizers store (as "Ammonium nitrate").

Precursors

Reaction between ammonia and nitric acid

Chemical equation:

NH4OH + HNO3 = NH4NO3 + H2O

For preparation of 100.00g of ammonium nitrate а 175.13g of 25% ammonia and 121.11g of 65% acid is required.
Add acid to the flask, then add small parts of ammonium compound with stirring until it will totally dissolve . After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Reaction between calcium or lead(II) nitrate and ammonium hydroxide or sulfate

Chemical equation:

Ca(NO3)2 + 2NH4OH = Ca(OH)2↓ + 2NH4NO3
Pb(NO3)2 + 2NH4OH = Pb(OH)2↓ + 2NH4NO3
Ca(NO3)2 + (NH4)2SO4 = CaSO4↓ + 2NH4NO3
Pb(NO3)2 + (NH4)2SO4 = PbSO4↓ + 2NH4NO3

For preparation of 100.00g of ammonium nitrate а 82.54g of ammonium sulfate or 175.13g of 25% ammonia and 206.89g of nitrate lead(II) or 147.51g of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate is required.
Add to the flask with calcium or lead nitrate solution small parts of ammonium salt solution and stir. The large amount of poorly soluble precipitate will form. Settle it out and discard, then filter the solution carefully.

Influence of temperature

Forms a plurality of different crystal structures, depending on the solution temperature.

Notes

Dissolving is endothermic, solution cools much, so use hot water or using heat.

Storage conditions

Store in its original form or under several layers of varnish at average humidity and room temperature. Do not store in matchboxes or cotton wool and do not heat.

Solubility

Temperatureгр/100,00 гр waterгр/100,00 гр ethanolгр/100,00 гр methanolгр/100,00 гр DMSOгр/100,00 гр pyridineгр/100,00 гр ammoniaгр/100,00 гр hydrazineгр/100,00 гр dimethylformamide
0°C
273.15 K
32 °F
491.67 °R
119
119 g/100g
54.338 %
10°C
283.15 K
50 °F
509.67 °R
150
150 g/100g
60 %
15°C
288.15 K
59 °F
518.67 °R
~171
171 g/100g
63.1 %
20°C
293.15 K
68 °F
527.67 °R
192
192 g/100g
65.753 %
2.5
2.5 g/100g
2.439 %
17.1
17.1 g/100g
14.603 %
78
78 g/100g
43.82 %
25°C
298.15 K
77 °F
536.67 °R
212
212 g/100g
67.949 %
~3.13
3.13 g/100g
3.035 %
73
73 g/100g
42.197 %
23.35
23.35 g/100g
18.93 %
391
391 g/100g
79.633 %
55.1
55.1 g/100g
35.525 %
30°C
303.15 K
86 °F
545.67 °R
242
242 g/100g
70.76 %
~3.75
3.75 g/100g
3.614 %
40°C
313.15 K
104 °F
563.67 °R
297
297 g/100g
74.811 %
5
5 g/100g
4.762 %
50°C
323.15 K
122 °F
581.67 °R
346
346 g/100g
77.578 %
~6.25
6.25 g/100g
5.882 %
60°C
333.15 K
140 °F
599.67 °R
421
421 g/100g
80.806 %
7.5
7.5 g/100g
6.977 %
70°C
343.15 K
158 °F
617.67 °R
499
499 g/100g
83.306 %
80°C
353.15 K
176 °F
635.67 °R
599
599 g/100g
85.694 %
90°C
363.15 K
194 °F
653.67 °R
740
740 g/100g
88.095 %
100°C
373.15 K
212 °F
671.67 °R
1024
1,024 g/100g
91.103 %
Soluble in acetone.

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